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Russia - Eretich, Ereticy, Inovercy, Koldun, Kudesnik, Majky, Mjertovjec, Odoroten, Porcelnik, Snaxar, Upierczi, Upyr, Vampir, Vipir, Vourdalak, Vuper, Wampir, Wurdulac, Xloptuny, Zmittsjata

Eretich: (literally meaning "heretic") came to be a special term for a vampire, applied to anyone who became an undead vampire as the result of dying outside the Christian Orthodox Faith. But it applied most especially to evil sorcerers and witches who returned from graves after dying and who had sold their souls to the devil while they were still alive. The only reason I leave this one separate from Ereticy is the fact that it is always specific about the faith involved.

Ereticy (also known as Eretik, Eretnik, Eretica, Eretnica, Eretitsa, Eretnitsa or Erestun): Are said to be either re-animated corpses brought back by sorcerers to begin feeding on their relatives or women who had sold their souls to Satan and who sleep on graves and make unseemly noises in the public bathhouses.
        Another version of this Russian vampire was usually considered to be a heretic, who has returned from the dead. It was in general said to be a woman who had sold her soul in life and then returns in the form of a ragged old woman. At nightfall a group of Ereticy would gather in ravines and perform a form of sabbat. Said to be active only in spring and autumn, it was believed that seeing the eyes of such a creature would result in a slow withering death. Generally these creatures were destroyed by the use of an aspen stake or by fire.

Inovercy: Requires further research.

Koldun (masculine) or Koldunya (feminine): A practitioner of magic who died as a heretic, see Eretich and Ereticy also.

Kudesnik: A practitioner of magic who died as a heretic, see Eretich and Ereticy also.

Majky (Possibly also known as Nejky, Navjaky, Navje): Ukrainian forest spirit in shape of beautiful young maiden. Otherwise still under research,

Mjertovjec: Possibly also known as Myertovets and Myertovjec. Having a purple face, it was said to be active from midnight until the cock crows the third time in the morning. Supposed causes were if it were the son of a werewolf or a witch; or else if during its lifetime it had behaved as a werewolf, a sorcerer, an apostate, or if it had cursed its own father or the church. To destroy the Mjertovjec you had to sprinkle poppy seeds along the road leading from the tomb to the house of the deceased. When the evil became apparent transfix the Mjertovjec through the chest with a nail to the coffin, or else burn it.

Odoroten: Under re-construction.

Pocelnik: A practitioner of magic who died as a heretic, see Eretich and Ereticy also.

Snaxar: A practitioner of magic who died as a heretic, see Eretich and Ereticy also.

Upierczi: It was reported to become a vampire after suicide, violent death or practice of witchcraft during its lifetime. Said to cause droughts, going as far as drying the dew on plants. To rid themselves of the Upierczi they had to drown it in a lake or river (salt water was not indicated). If it were transfixed with a nail, it could be hit no more than once or it would revive.

Upyr: See Bulgaria.

Upyyr: The most commonly used term in modern Russia. Quite probably an offshoot of the Ukrainian Upyr.

Vampir: Heretics, witches and suicides were considered to turn into Vampires (also known as Oupyr, Upierczi, Upyr, Vopyr and Wampir) after death. They cause drought and while running them through with a stake will kill them, if you strike more than once it will revive.

Vipir: It appears that this is the modern form that has crossed over to Bulgarian culture. Also known as Vepir or Vapir. Requires further research.

Vourdalak: A Russian vampire, considered in Russian folklore to be a beautiful but evil woman.

Vuper: Term used in Byelorussia, still under research.

Wampir: Also possibly known as Vieszcy and Upierczi in some areas. These creatures appear exactly as normal humans and have a "stinger" under their tongue rather than fangs. They are active from noon until midnight. They reportedly can only be destroyed by burning. When burned, its body would burst, giving rise to hundreds of small, disgusting animals (maggots, rats, etc.). If any of these were to escape, then the Wampir's "spirit" will escape as well, and will later return to seek revenge.

Wurdulac: Possibly also known as Wurdalak. Wurdulacs are some of the most pathetic creatures in European folklore. Wurdulac (also known as Werdilak, Verdilak, and Vourdalak.) is another Slavic view of the vampire. Although Dracula came from what is now Romania, and said to be able to transform into wolf, bat, mist, or rat, with summoning capabilities for each in kind, Bram stoker was a writer who contributed or created these notions. In Eastern Europe, the concept of a blood-drinking bat never really reached the general populace, leaving the wolf the only shape shifting form for the Wurdulac. This has erroneously led some people to conclude that Wurdulac were werewolves transformed into vampires.
        Instead, the Wurdulac suffers from a much darker, saddening fate. A person, who becomes a Wurdulac, can only feed off and kill the ones it loves, causing entire families to be transformed into Wurdulacs over a very short time. The Wurdulac is best known from a story by V.I. Tolstoy, brother of Leo Tolstoy, which was adapted into part of Mario Bava's omnibus film, I Tre volti della paura (The Three Faces of Fear aka Black Sabbath). Boris Karloff played an old man named Gorca, who went off to kill a Wurdulac, but became one himself, transforming his entire family in a single night. His daughter then transformed the boarder with whom she mutually fell in love. While many tales tell us as long as the bite is not fatal, the person does not become a vampire, Wurdulacs are forced to feed on the same people, those they love, and must befriend all of their victims. This can cause severe neurosis is the Wurdulac, which may drive the person to starve to death rather than make new friends, destroying oneself and ending the chain.

Xloptuny: Under research.

Zmittsjata: Child that has died unbaptised and has turned into a vampire.


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