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India - Alvantin, Apsaras, Asra-pa, Asrk-pa, Baital, Bhuta, Brahmaparush, Chedipe, Churel, Gandharva, Gayal, Hanh Saburo, Hant-pare, Jilaiya, Jigarkhor, Jigarkhwar, Kali, Mah`anah, Masani, Nagulai, Pisacha, Punyaiama, Rakshasa, Veda, Yaksa, Yaksi, Yaksha

Alvantin: Another undead vampiric creature of India. What little I have is very conflicting, so still under research.

Asra-pa: Seen in textual reference with Yaksi and Rakshasa. Requires further research.

Asrk-pa: Seen in textual reference with Yaksi and Rakshasa. Requires further research.

Apsaras: Similar to the 'Alp' of Germany but with more elfin features.

Baital: Also known as Baitala, Baitel, Vetal, and Vetala. Formerly a dead person, who resembles a small human, with bat like wings and a tail similar to a goats. They can often be found hanging upside down from trees in graveyards. Still requires further research.

Bhuta (also known as Bhut or Bhuts): Appearing at night as shadows, flickering lights or mists, the Bhuta are souls of those who died untimely. They are mostly harmless, although they will attack babies who have just fed, as they love milk. They can transmogrify into owls or bats. It was believed that those who were physically disabled, insane or suicidal were destined to become a Bhuta following their death. These vampires inhabited wastelands and graveyards in the form of 'willo-the-wisp' type lights or shadowy, ghostly apparitions. The Bhuta were said to cause severe illness in those it attacked as these vampires mostly fed on the intestines and excrement of the recently buried. They were also believed to be able to possess individuals in order to attack newly-fed babies in an attempt to digest the milk that had drunk from their mothers.

Brahmaparus: This bloodthirsty monster took ghoulish delight in completely consuming the people it attacked. Its method of devouring its victims was highly ritualized: the Brahmaparush would begin by drinking the blood through a hole in the skull, following that the brain would also be consumed. This feeding ritual would not be complete until the vampire performed a macabre dance whilst deliberately entangled in the intestines of the corpse it had destroyed.

Chedipe: The Chedipe (lit. prostitute) enters a house at night sending all into a trance and sucks blood from the toe of the male of the house.

Churel: A woman, who has died unnaturally or in childbirth during the festival of Divali, may return with her feet on back to front. The Churel attempts to dry the blood of the men of the family. The Churel were generally extremely ugly vampires with sagging breasts, black tongues, thick, rough lips, wild hair and back-to-front feet. They were thought to be bitter and angry due to their untimely death and as a result attacked their families and attractive, young men. In western India the Churel was also known as a Jakhin, Jakhai, Mukai, Nagulai and Alvantin.

Gandharva: Blood-sucking Hindu incubi. Otherwise still being researched. Possibly erroneously seen as Gandharven.

Gayal: The Gayal was a male spirit, which had returned from the grave unable to rest, as the burial rites had not been correctly carried out on the deceased. This angry spirit would attack members of his family in revenge for their religious malpractice. Possibly also known as Ut.

Hanh Saburo: Indian forest vampires, which can control dogs. They will attempt to lure or drive travelers into the forest to attack them.

Hant-pare: Still under research.

Jilaiya: Under research, there is a possibility that this is in reference to a gaming creature.

Jigarkhor: Female vampire that is similar to the Jigarkhwar. This is possibly just another name for such a creature.

Jigarkhwar: A vampiric sorceress found in the Sind region of India. She feeds by extracting a person's liver through a piercing stare and various incantations. The liver is then cooked on a fire and eaten, at which time the victim dies.

Kali: This vampiric Goddess possessed a terrifying countenance and was said to appear on battlefields during long and bloody wars. Her skin was charred black in tone, her eyes and eyebrows were blood red and she had an extremely long tongue with which she became drunk on the blood of her victims.

Mah`anah: Still under research.

Masani: The Masani (also known as Masan) attacks travelers at night as they pass by the burial grounds in which this female vampire hides, sleeping by day in a funeral pyre. The ash from this pyre is what gives this vampire her black-skinned appearance.

Nagulai: At first I thought it was an off shoot of Naga, but it does seem to be an undead vampire of sorts. Further research required.

Pisacha: Possibly also seen as Pisaca. The Pisacha (trans. Flesh Eater) was, in religious teachings, a personification of Brahma's anger at the immorality and vices that had developed in humanity. This grotesque deity took pleasure in the consumption of whole corpses but also had the ability to cure diseases if approached in a respectful manner.

Punyaiama: The Punyaiama (pure race) looks like an old woman. It passes a magic thread down a chimney and sucks the blood from the sleeping or mad/drunk women. It is also reported to be a cannibal.

Rakshasa (Rakshasis feminine form): Also seen as Raksasa. These vampires would appear to men and lure them to their death but would also attack babies and pregnant women to drink their blood. There were many legends associated with the Rakshasa (trans. 'Injurer'): some believed that if a child were forced to eat human brains then it would become one, others believed that these vampires caused stomach sicknesses in people who had trespassed into their territory and that these fanged creatures dwelt in trees from which they could spy on those traveling underneath. Some were ogres or demons living in cemeteries having a human, humanoid or half-animal shape. They have fangs and attack infants and pregnant women. First described in Atharva Veda. Closely related to the Rakshasa were the 'yata-dhana' (or 'hatu-dhana'), who were sorcerers would seemed to follow the Rakshasa. Stories of the Rakshasa warned men against committing adultery and frightened children away from cannibalism. It is possible that this Indian tale is a source of the Irish myth of Leanhaum-shee, a fairy woman who enchanted men and drained their energy through lovemaking.

Veda: Another Indian vampire was the Veda, who appeared in the form of an old woman and preyed upon intoxicated or mad women. Fear of the Veda prevented women from drinking alcohol or acting out in their homes. Possibly related to the Punyaiama.

Yaksa {masculine}: Also seen as Yakkha. I have seen this creature explained as everything from a divine being, to a demon, to a monstrous human. However all these forms do seem to have a benevolent side. Generally it seems that if not made or born this way, then crying out certain phrases will cause you to become this creature. Quite often this term seems to be used interchangeably with Raks?asa, Pisaca, or Gandharva. Requires further research.

Yaksi {feminine}: Also seen as Yakkhini, Yaksinis, and Yakshi. See Yaksa. Under research.

Yaksha: Possibly an erroneous spelling of Yaksa. Although during further research it may be just another term for Yaks?a, as Yakshi is for Yaks?i.


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